Anjumn-e-Punjab was established in 1863. In 1865, in order to propagate its objects, a magazine was issued which was named as ‘Risala Anjumn Ishaat Matalab-e-Mufida’ Punjab. In 1870, this magazine was replaced by ‘Akhbar Anjumn-e-Punjab.’ This is a government owned paper.
In addition to local and international news this weekly paper included literary and scientific essays and translations. It is important to UBonly due to its essays on journalism. Impartant newspapers of 19th century ‘:
In 19th century plenty of papers emerged but most of them were of low merit. However, some of then were of good standard.
Mohazib Lucknoux It was a weekly periodical issued by Maulvi Abdul Halim Sharar in 1880. Hindustani: It was published both in Urdu as well as in Hindi. Ahasan-al-Akhbar:
It was issued in 1878 from Allah Abad by Haji Muhammad Kabir-al-Haq. Akmal-al-Akhbar: It was issued by Hakim Wasal Khan from Dheli. Hakim Muhammad Ajmal Khan also remained its editor Shams-al-Akhbar: It was issued in 1859 when Nasir-ud- Din Ghattali was its editor. He supported Khilafat movement fervently and was awarded with ‘Tamgha-e-Majidi’. Wakil:
It was issued in 1895 from Amritsar. It was very popular due to its serenity, judgement, and supporting the rights of Muslims. Maulana Abul Kalam, Maulana Abdullah Minhas and Maulvi lDs~aallah were amongst its editors. AKHBAR-E-AAM: It was issued by Pundat Qalander Ram from Lahore in 1871. Initially, it was a weekly periodical. Afterwards it started issuing its edition after three days and at last it became daily. Pandat Gopi Nath was its editor.
It edited news, editorial notes and essays. It used to edit commentaries on current news. Sometimes, essays on moral, patience and on other common Islamic topics were also published in it. Akhbar-e-Aam tried to develop popular journalism and it was really popular before emerging Paisa Akhbar.
It was issued from Lahore by Maulvi Mahboob Alam. It was bearer of pure Islamic values and fought for the Muslim rights. It was a low price weekly and became very popular in masses., It was a milestone in the development of Urdu journalism.
The great Urdu journalists of the time like Lala Dins Nath, Munshi Ahmed Din, Maulvi Shujaat Din and Mir Jalib Dhelvi worked in this paper. Its style was serene and its editorials reflected daily life. It had the largest circulation amongst its contemporaries. So, it was the most successful newspaper of its age.
It was banned in 1924. It was the first paper which was run on commercial base successfully. It tried to publish news objectively. Its editorials were’sobre and effective. It advocated Muslim cause and was popular paper of the age but with emergence of frevent and spirited papers like Zamindar its popularity was affected much.
Revolutionary phase of iournallsm
In the beginning of twentieth century, journalism was moderate. To the end of first quarter of this century when the revolutionary era had started and the fervent movements like caliphate movement and the others were taking the British arrogance down, the journalism also changed its colours. Now it was aggressive, fervent, and spirited. ZAMINDAR:It was issued by Maulana Sirajudclin Ahmed in 1903 from Lahore.
It was a weekly paper oriented at welfare of the cultivators. After the death of Maulana Sirajuddin, his son Maulana Zafer Ali Khan assumed the responsibilities and the first edition under his editorship on Jan. I, 1910 from Karram Abad but again it was shifted to Lahore in 1911. It adopted Islamic spirit and was appreciated too much. It became very popular. During the war of Tripoli it became daily. In following era it exerted too. much influence on Muslim politics.
During Balkan wars, Caliphate Movement, Disobedience movement, Kanpur, Kashmir Independence movement and Pakistan Movement, it wrote in Muslim favor with a daring ability. So, Zamindar’s splendid columns, imparting news with great care and live and spirited poems of Zafer Ali Khan created a new taste for newspapers. For the first time Zafar Ali Khan arranged to receive and collect news from Associated Press of India and other resources.
He introduced new terms and expressions in journalism .. His was a unique style. He also published trarlsiatio~ of the significant columns of the newspapers from abroad. He used to give frequent headlines. So this was the paper which was responsible to spread popular journalism.
Maulana Zafar Ali Khan stood for Muslim rights. He defended Muslims view against the attacks of biased Hindu papers. He appreciated Muslim press and wrote commentaries in favour of them. He published news from Islamic countries abroad. He enticed the Muslims not to quarrel with each other and be united.
Zamindar was dedicated to Muslim cause. Zafar Ali Khan was a devotee of Islam and he never missed any opportunity of raising voice in favour, of Muslim masses. Excerpts from the newspapers ffom the. Muslim countries abroad were also used to publish in Zamindar,
A special coverage was given to the activities of the cultivates. One can also find excellent pages about. literature,politics and education. There were scholarly writings on various fields of learnings. We can imagine the standard of the paper by just recalling the names of the great journalists who were connected with this; Maulana Emadi, Ghulam Rasool Mehr, Salak, Hasan Hasrat, Maulana Hussain Mir, Mumtaz Malik, Abdullah Butt, Sorash Kashmiri, and Kazi Ehsan ullah.
It would not be any exaggeration if we call it a school of journalism. Commrade and Hamdard: Commrade was issued by Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar in 1911 from Calcutta. Maulana Johar was a genius in true sense. He was a spellbound orator and an excellent writer. He was at home in English and Urdu.
He was an upright and dountless person and had extraordinary leadership qualities. No doubt, he was a true Muslim and had a spirited soul but he showed a great sense of responsibility and honesty.
He himself was of the opinion that a journalist should report the facts being unbiased and impartial and should maintain such a standard that an historian can quote him without any hesitation.
The journalist’s work is not were corroboration of the feelings of the masses. He should teach them the righteous way. So to fulfil the purpose of the guidance of the Muslim masses, Maulana Johar thought over to issue a paper in their own language.
Hamdard was itsued in 1913. Its purpose was explained by Johar himself that it would learn from and it would teach to the public and would impart impartial news. Harndard and Commrade were banned in 1914 when they were exposing the knavery and imposture of the cunning and dishonest Britishers. Hamdard had a unique style in the history of journalism.
It had political, historical, social, scientific, and literary essays in itself. It had humour and criticism. It had cartoons and sketches and every thing which a paper of the modern age could claim.
But all these things were purposeful and thought provoking and with uprighteousness and daring.
It had in its writings a pain for Muslim Ummah. It was issued again in 1929 but lasted only one year. Urdu journalism is obliged much to Hamdard. It showed a path which was illuminated and it invented some new expressions