We shall now look at ten distinct and particular classes of advertising, each of which Calls for a distinct treatment and sometimes different media. From these studies, we shall begin to appreciate the diversity of advertising even better. The classifications are as follows


These ten classes do not include what is sometimes incorrectly tenoned ‘mail order’ advertising because this is a contradiction in terms. Mail order is a form of distribution, and while mail order traders must advertise to get business their announcements are best placed under the heading of persuasive. Moreover, there is a tendency to confuse mail order with direct mail, the latter being an advertising medium. The mail order trader may use the media of press and direct mail advertising. We shall, however, include retail advertising as a separate class because this is distinct from that of the manufacturer, one promoting a store and the other a produc

1. Persuasive. Also known as ‘hard-sell’ advertising, is the most obvious kind which surrounds us in our daily lives, urging us to buy all manner of products and services. Without such sales-promoting advertising it is hard to imagine how modern society-with its mass production and mass consumption could survive. Scathing comments are made about the ‘ad mass but its critics happen to enjoy the plentiful supply of goods which satisfy their economic needs, food, clothes and shelter. Countless pleasures and former luxuries are also enjoyed simply because economies of scale can be exploited, thanks to advertising and other aids to distribution to national and international markets. The argument for advertising is very much the same as the argument for the Common Market

The alternative to advertising is to revert to a medieval style of life with self-sufficient production and modestly adequate incomes for most craftsmen, little commercial intercourse with other towns, exports of certain primary commodities of which wool predominated, no banking, no credit and religious antipathy towards money-lending and making profits

Persuasive advertising is the inevitable companion of industrialization. There is no point in having machines if markets cannot be found for their output: persuasive advertising finds the markets and keeps the wheels of industry turning by maintaining demand_ But not only machines need advertising; A holiday resort cannot fill its hotel bedrooms, nor can a theater attract a nightly audience without advertising. Moreover, this kind of advertising persuades people to consider the variety of choices available to them, which is rather different from the criticism
that advertising persuades people to buy things they do not want

The persuasive, hard-selling advertisement must perform five functions if it is to succeed, these being to:

(i) attract attention.
(ii) command interest.
(iii) create desire.
(iv) inspire conviction.
(v) provoke action.

This process means that attention has to be attracted from elsewhere, and interest held by the message which makes the reader, viewer or listener want to own and enjoy the product or. service. The message convinces the customer of performance or value for money and some form of inducement–maybe a coupon or special offer-urges action. All this may require an elaborately planned, created And presented advertisement, or it may be achieved with something as direct and simple as FREE GLASS WITH EACH EXTRA PINTA THIS WEEK

Here, then, is the powerful sales-promoting advertisement which employs all the ingenious techniques of copy writing, design and media planning to achieve its objectives. And in this we can begin to see why advertising calls for such a medley of skills, and why the advertising agency has become the means of providing the advertiser with the brains and talents necessary to plan and create sales-promoting campaigns.

2. Information. Not everything is bought right away. It may have to be thought about very carefully, and there may be quite a bit of window-shopping and budgeting before the final purchase is made. Or it may be one of those once in a lifetime buys, or a present for some lucky person some day in the future. More leisurely and often more expensive purchases can result from a study of helpful and explanatory advertisements over a peristyle of time. Central heating or coiling, double glazing, a new car, kitchen cabinets, a refrigerator or a sewing machine are typical products of this sort. Mostly, they are ones we call consumer durable, things that last a long time, and are bought infrequently.

So here we have a very different kind of advertising, less dramatic and compelling but none the less attractive, interesting and convincing. The pace .of the appeal is quieter, there is more copy to read, perhaps more pictures to look out, and the object of the ad. may be to invite the reader to obtain more detailed information by applying for a brochure or arranging for a demonstration

Of course, a lot of advertisements tall mid-way between the persuasive and the informative. There are exceptions such as proprietary medicine and treatment advertisements which sell by means off sets, evidence, testimonials and other lengthy chippy,but, generally speaking, persuasive advertisements tend to appear on TV and in the popular press, while informative ones are more likely to appear in magazines or weekend newspapers which are read more thoroughly or in less hurried circumstances.

There is also the informative ad. which hardly seems to sell at all, telling us interesting things that are somewhat removed from the product itself, or creating a mood which makes us feel favorably disposed towards the product. Here we have the ‘soft-sell’ as opposed to the ‘hard-sell’ appeal. The tobacco firms are adept at using this technique, promoting leisure and pleasure activities to associate pleasure with their products

3. Institutional. Also known as prestige or corporate advertising, this is the type of advertisement used to present the company image, as when an oil or pharmaceutical company takes space to describe its research skills, its contribution to society, or its efforts to combat pollution. In this case advertising techniques and media are being used to perform a PR task. At one time there was a tendency to direct corporate image PR campaigns through advertisements in the newspapers and business magazines, but as PR techniques were more fully developed it became less necessary to resort to press advertising. The advantage of using Institutional press advertising is that the message can be issued in a precise and controlled fashion on specific dates.

4. Financial: Financial advertising does not have to be sober. Some banks have used humorous TV commercials, others have used colourful electric signs. In recent years there has been a revolution in financial advertising as the banking world has shed some, but not all, of its inhibitions and traditions of bowler-hatted conformity. Banks, unit trusts, building societies and insurance companies have sought users of their services and investors from wider and sometimes younger sections of the public.

There are, of course, many traditional forms of financial advertisements such as those required by the Stock Exchange in the event of a new share issue, and very formal pages of small print, setting out a company’s history and prospects, appear in business newspapers. Companies also issue very formal announcements about their trading results, but some go further and offer readers attractively presented information based on the fuller annual report and accounts

Perhaps the chief characteristic of financial advertising is its detail. Readers usually want to know a lot about the offer being made, whether it be a unit trust, a life·insurance policy, a building society investment, a new share issue or a local authority’s efforts to raise a loan. The reader wants to know ‘what’s in it for him’, what are the risks and the rewards and what are the safeguards. This calls for meticulously detailed copy, even more so than in the case of the informative or educational advertisement already discussed. The copy has to answer all likely questions, and be convincing about it

5. Classified. While a great many classifieds (or ‘smalls’) are inserted by private individuals, others are placed by commercial firms as will be seen, for instance, in the vacancy columns of both national newspapers and magazines. The Personal Column of the newspapers is used by both private and commercial advertisers, even if publishers do separate one kind from the other in the same column.

There is a special art in writing an almost telegram-like ad. in.a few lines, using an intriguing opening to catch the reader;~ eye, squeezing as much abbreviated but intelligible copy into as few lines as possible. The impact of a classified is lost if the copy is too long.

In the previous chapter we have already defined the displayed classified under Recruitment Advertising

6. Retail: With the exception. of productive retailers bakers, florists, hairdressers-most retailers are selling other people’s goods. Their advertising has four objectives:

(i) To sell the stock.
(ii) To establish the identity or character of the store-a kind of image advertising.
(iii) To identify the location.
(iv) To attract personal, telephone or mail order shoppers

Obviously, retail advertising has to work very hard, even harder than a persuasive advertisement for a manufacturer. The rewards, or lack of them, will be equally obvious. Such advertising is critical to the success and survival of a shopkeeper. Not only does he have to buy skilfully, and provide good service to his customers, but he has to understand how to make advertising achieve the four objectives set out above. This task becomes all the more difficult when one considers what little understanding the smaller trader is likely to have of advertising techniques and that his total expenditure probably does not justify the services of an agency. He can, however, take advantage of the service departments of local media. Further advice may be offered him from time to time in his trade magazine, while some of his suppliers may invite him to join in co-operative schemes.

7. Co-operative (four kinds). The four types of cooperative advertising are:

(i) Co-operatioe society (Co-op) and agricultural and similar co-operative trading organisations. This is really only a form of retail advertising, and is introduced here merely for the sake of clarifying the succeeding forms.
(ii). Joint advertising placed by a trade association, a national export organisation or a publicity committee set up on behalf of an industry. Those benefiting from such joint efforts are levied to pay for the campaign.
(iii) Mutual advertising schemes where two or more firms combine their advertising, as in the cases of fashion houses and department stores, bread and butter, packaged holidays and swim suits.
(iv) Dealer support schemes which are also known as cooperative schemes. The manufacturer may either sub sidise the stockist’s advertising, usually on a 50-50 basis, or supply free advertising material, such as stock-blocks of products or complete stereos of advertisements with a space l”‘ft fer the insertion of the dealer’s name and address. h’J.U~hof the new car advertising in the local press makes use of these stereos. Stock-blocks of products and trade marks can also be inserted in the dealer’s own press advertisements or used to illustrate his cataloger sand direct mail literature.

In these ways, the manufacturer can encourage the dealer to promote the goods while the dealer can obtain assistance from the manufacturer both financially and creatively. Hence the expression ‘co-operative

8. IndustriaL Most industrial advertising offers raw materials, components and services to manufacturers and users who convert these technical things into finished products which, in turn, are advertised to the end user or final consumer. A house or a motor-car, a television receiver or a central heating or colling system is an assembly of items made by others. It is sometimes said that a fault of the motor industry is that it comes to a halt if the maker of steel, glass, wheels or engine components goes on strike. Industrial advertising aims to sell, say, plastic rainwater pipes, re-treated timber, infill panels, wood block flooring, windows, bricks, roofing tiles, insulation materials and so on to house builders. The media, in this case of the building industry, will consist of the trade press, exhibitions, direct mail and demonstrations in building centres

9. Government advertising. Many of the forms of advertising already described are’ embraced by government advertising (especially classifieds for recruitment purposes). Government department advertising is organised by the Central Office of Information which appoints advertising agencies for different campaigns.

The media of-trade press, direct mail and exhibition are the most commonly used, but TV has been used on occasion and TV contractors offer special schemes by which retailers are told of forthcoming TV campaigns aimed at their customers.

The purpose of trade advertising is therefore to secure distribution, that is, to ‘sell in’ to the trade. Its appeal is to the distributor’s desire to sell more and make more profit. It takes place (or should take place!) prior to consumer advertising because it is folly to advertising a product which is unobtainable. Nevertheless, an objective can be to increase distribution of an advertised product.

Having described some of the numerous uses and forms of advertising, at least from the point of view of the advertiser, we shall now turn in the nature and role of advertising in modem society.


In the previous pages we have deliberately tried to draw a broad picture of advertising, hoping that this will open the reader’s eyes to its multiplicity of kinds and uses. In this way the reader can begin to understand how advertising is and can be used by all sorts of individuals and organisations for many different reasons and purposes. It is hoped that these few pages may have helped to overcome any notions that advertising is  or unnecessary, and to have revealed the sheer versatility of this communication tool. Advertising is not unlike a telephone, an instrument whose usefulness can be ab but which, when properly used, can be a boon

At the beginning of this Chapter there was a brief definition of advertising as the means by which we make known what we have to sell or what we want to buy. An even better one is that advertising presents the most persuasive possible selling message to the right prospects for the product or service at the lowest possible cost.

This is a professional definition. It emphasizes that advertising should be planned and created to achieve the most results for the least costs. When science and art are united in the forms of research and creative skills, and supported by astute buying of media and materials, it 18 possible to produce and execute campaigns that contribute to business success. Not t surprisingly, this businesslike definition comes from the Institute of Practitioners in Advertising, the professional body of the advertising agents, and it appears in booklets produced to explain agency services to businessmen. The definition is rightly concerned about cost-effectiveness

The same point is made by both definitions: The object of advertising is to sell. But unlike the salesman who sells in a face to- face, or even voice-to-voice, situation, advertising sells in a broadcast fashion to numbers of prospects whose identity mayor may not be known, and who may be close at hand or at a distance. An advertisement in the newspapers is just as likely to sell to someone working in a Pak Tea House as it is to a man in the Or keys. A card in a London underground train compartment can sell to the passenger sitting opposite, but equally an advertisement in a magazine can sell to someone on the other side of the world. Advertising has this remarkable flexibility and range of operation.

The versatility and flexibility of this selling force does have to be used intelligently. When research information is coupled with the skills offered by trained and experienced advertising men and women, there is no reason why professional advertising should not do all that is claimed for it in the IPA definition.

Posted on November 28, 2015 in Advertising

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