Mega-agency: Global advertising agency, incorporating a holding company and subsidiaries. Microfilm: A film often in the form of a strip 16-mm or 35-mm wide bearing a photographic record on a reduced scale of printed or other graphic matter that can be enlarged for viewing.
ModeTTL’An instrument that enables computer signals to be transmitted over telephone circuits.
Muckraking: A term used by Theodore Roosevelt to describe crusading magazines of the early 1900s and adopted by them as a badge of honor.
Multinational: In the communication field, the designation for a company or organization, such as a major news agency, cable or wireless operator, and television or film distributor, that operates as a single entity in more than one country. Distinct from a transnational company. (See Transnational.)
Multiple-system operator (MSO): A company that operates more than one cable television system. Prognosticating: Designing a radio station’s programming to serve the interests of a limited, closely defined audience”ce.
Realism film: Movie produced with natural lighting in non studio locations, employing only a few professional performers, and aimed at depicting actual life situations.
New Journalism: A designation originally applied to the newspapers of the 1880s that won mass readership by being low priced, entertaining, objective in basic hard news, and advocates of social and economic reform. Used in the 1960s to identify an impressionist, activist writing style.
New Weave: Experimental film genre popular from about 1958 to 1964 in many countries, notably France. Films were produced generally without chronological continuity, care notably
plotted story lines, or “stage” performances.
News pool: An organization of agencies of various
countries formed to exchange news and other information. AIs~~8
group of reporters chosen voluntarily to gather and exchange
news for a number of news organizations.
Newspaper group: Two or more dailies in different markets under cornmeal ownership. Also described (not to the groups’ liking) as a chain.
Newspaper guild, The: The labor union representing newspaper editorial employees and some other staff members.
Newspaper Preservation Act: Created an exemption to the antitrust law permitting a failing newspaper to combine business and mechanical operations with those of a successful paper in the same city. Editorial departments must remain separate. . . Nonverbal communication: Communication’ without the use of words, through facial expression, eye movement, posture, and so forth. Also known as silent language.
o and Os: Television stations owned and operated by networks, Obscenity: Depiction of materials of a lewd, lascivious
prurient, licentious, or indecent nature. Subject to a broad range f’Jf interpretation.
Offset printing: A method of printing, based on lithography, used by a large majority of newspapers. Ombudsman: A person employed by a news organization with independent authority to respond to reader complaints and to call attention to discrepancies in the handling of news. Op-ed page: Short for opposite editorial page, on which columns and other opinion material are published.
Optical character recognition (OCR):A machine that feeds typewritten material into a computer or a phototypesetting machine.
Outdoor: A branch of advertising using billboards and signs. Over the transom: Unsolicited manuscripts received by book and magazine publishers.
Pagination: The process of making up an entire newspaper page on videoscreen, ready for transmission to a printing plate.
Pay cable: Supplementary programming services distributed by a cable television system, for which the recipient pays additional fees beyond the basic cable charge.
Payola: Under-the-counter payment of cash or other favours to radio station personnel who play certain records frequently.
Penny press: The designation of a’ new style ofnewspaper reporting, appearing in the 1830s and 1840s, that was low priced, popularly written, and edited to include human interest stories and important news appealing to a broad base of readers’
People meter: Hand-held instrument used by rating services to measure the size and demographic elements of television audiences.
Photographic communication: Transmission of ideas, information, and attitudes through use of one or more photographs for all types of purposes, including news and advertising;
Photojournalism: A combination of words and photograph(s) designed to communicate information or attitudes. A branch of photographic communication.
Piracy: Unauthorized acquisition and use of property. Commonly used in reference to the foreign appropriation of copyrighted books and other materials for financial gain.
Pixel: Definable location on a video screen used to form images. For graphic displays, screens with more pixels generally provide sharper images.
P.M. newspaper: One distributed primarily in late afternoon. Positioning: Differentiating a product or service, mainly through marketing and advertising, from those of its competitors.
Press agentry: Promotion of an idea, product, service, or individual(s) through shrewd and often extravagant notices to the
media, staged events, and other such devices. (See also Hype.)
Press association: An agency that gathers a.
Satellite master antenna system (SMATV): A receiving dish on private property that receives programmes by satellite and distributes them to adjacent dwelling units.
Satellite neuisgathering (SNG): Use of satellite transmission units by reporters in the field to send stories quickly to their home studios.
Semantic noise: Interference with the reception of a message that occurs when the message is misunderstood even though it is received exactly as transmitted. (See Connotative and Denotative.)
Share: The percentage of households with television sets having their sets turned on to a given station at a given time.
Shield law: State legislation preventing reporters from being forced to reveal sources of information to state courts and grand juries.
Shopper: See Controlled circulation newspaper, Slander: Mainly spoken defamatory words. (See DefamatSioonf.t) core pornography: Materials •designed to arouse a person sexually but depicting only simulated (not actual) sexual activity of a graphic nature,
Software: A set of instructions written in computer language that makes a computer do as it is told. Sound: In radio, the choice of music and vocal technique that make a station’s programming easily recognizable
Specialty advertising: Useful articles of merchandise imprinted with an advertiser’s message and distributed without obligation to the recipient.
Spectrum: Electromagnetic energy in the form of wavelengths or frequencies laid out in numerical order and including light and radio waves.
Spinoff: A new television show created around a popular character or characters taken from.another situation series. Sponsored film: Motion picture, paid for by a company or organization, that delivers information or a message, usually without charge.
Standard Aduertislng Unit: Uniform system. adopted by many newspapers in 1984 providing conformity in mechanical requirements and billing procedures for advertisers.
Stereotype: The image of another person or entity that people have in their minds, reflecting attitudes and general extent of knowledge about that person or entity. Also and originally (as a verb), to convert a flat newspaper page form into a semi cyclindrical metal plate to fit a rotary press.
Stored experience: Knowledge based upon what one has observed, encourtered, or undergone. (See Frame of reference) Subscription television: Programmes delivered over the air in scrambled form, then unscrambled for a fee at the receiving set.
Survey research: Through a scientific sample gathering demographic information or sociological facts, as well as opinions and attitudes.
Symbol: The component of a message, usually a word, picture, or sign, transmitted by a communicator. Syndicate: An organization that sells comic strips and other features to newspapers.
Syndicated television show: A programme leased by its producer for rerun showing after it has appeared on a network. Tabloid: A newspaper with about half the dimensions of a standard-sized newspaper .
Target marketing: Aiming a marketing campaign at a special demographic or psycho-graphic group. Technology transfer: Transmission of the products of technology and knowledge of t heir operation from one individual, company, or country to another.
Teleconferencing: Linking groups of people by telephone and/or television, often via satellite, generally for business purposes. When television is used, often called videoconferencing. Telefilm: A dramatic or informative presentation shot on 16-mm or 35-mm film for television transniittal within the majority of countries that cannot use American video-taped programmes without costly conversion.
Teletext: System of delivering news and other information to a television screen in which the viewer can select certain portions of the material to watch.
“Tell” story: A brief news item read by an anchorperson on television without accompanying videotape or film action. Third World: The less technologically advanced nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The First World consists of the so-called Western powers and the Second World of the communist bloc of nations.
Tiering: System under which a cable television
subscriber pays for a basic package of channels, then pays extra fees for additional channel reception as desired. Time-shi [tin g: Practice of recording a television programmer’ on a videocassette recorder for viewing at a later time.
unification field the designation for a corporation that owns or controls one or more affiliated companies in foreign countries. Distinct from a multinational firm, which operates as a single entity in more than one country. (See Multinational.) VIIF television: Very high frequency transmission of
Watergate: A term used to describe a series of illegal
actions taken by Nixon administration officials, including a 1972
break-in at Democratic party offices in the Watergate Tower
apartment building in Washington, D.C.
Wet plate: A glass plate coated with a light-sensitive
solution that must be kept wet until exposed in the camera and
processed in a darkroom. Used before the invention of flexible
Word processing system: A software system that
processes text on a video screen, performing such functions as
paragraphing, paging, left and right justification of margins,
rearrangement of lines, and printing the text .