Newspapers and periodicals in the country are owned> either by private individual proprietors, or joint stock companies, or by Trusts. The groups owning newspaper chains are: (a) The National Press Trust (NPT), a non-profit organisation, was set up in 1964 by businessmen to own and operate newspapers. The registered charter of the NPl’ seeks “the promotion of sound and healthy journalism with a truly national outlook, untainted by parochial, partisan or sectarian inclinations”.
The Trust is also committed to upholding and protecting the “ideology and integrity of Pakistan”. The NPT had a Board of Trustees and a Chairman elected by the Board. In 1972, through the National Press Trust (Appointment of Chairman) Act, the Government of Pakistan took over the National Press Trust and appointed its Chairman. The NPT owns: Pakistan Times, Lahore and Islamabad editions; Morning News, Karachi; Mashriq, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta and Karachi; Imroze, Lahore and Multan. Akhbar-e- Khwateen Weekly, Karachi; and Sports Times, English monthly, Lahore.
(b) Pakistan Herald Publications Limited owns Dawn English daily, Dawn Gujrati daily, Dawn Overseas Weekly, Vatan Gujrati evening er, Evening Star; Hurriyat Urdu daily, and The Herald English monthly magazine. All these are published from Karachi.
(c) Jang Group (Independent Newspapers Corporation Limited) owns Jang, Urdu daily published from Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Quetta and London; Daily News, English eveninger, Karachi, Akhbar-e- Jehan Urdu weekly, Karachi, and Mag English weekly, Karachi. (d) Nauia-i- Waqt Limited owns Nauia-i- Waqt, Urdu daily published from Lahore, Multan, Rawalpindi and Karachi and The Nation, English daily from Lahore.
(e) Millat Group owns Millat Gujrati daily and Leader English evening, both from Karachi.
Reflecting the massive development activity in the country and the rapid expansion of trade and commerce has been the rise of a Business Press. The newspapers and journals, specializing in the projection of news and views pertaining to business and economic matters, include: English daily Business Recorder, Karachi; Urdu daily Business Report, Faisalabad; and several weeklies and monthlies. Dawn also issues, once a week with its regular English Edition, a four-page economic and business review.
The Press in the country is fed by two major news agencies: The Associated Press of Pakistan (APP) and the Pakistan Press International (PPD.
The APP, which was taken over by the Government of Pakistan in 1960 from a private Trust, supplies national and international news to the newspapers, radio and television stations, Government departments and some commercial subscribers.
Headquartered at Islamabad, where it also maintains its central news desk, ,APP has bureaus at Lahore and Karachi and branches at Peshawar, Quetta, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Multan, Faisalabad and Bahawalpur. It ‘has correspondents or stringers in all major towns of Pakistan. APP has its own correspondents stationed in New York, New Delhi, London and Beijing.
All the ‘Big Four’ western news agencies, (Reuters, Associated Press of America, United Press International and Agency France Press) distribute international news in Pakistan through APP, which alao has exchange arrangements with Tass (Soviet Union), New China News Agency (China), IRNA (Iran), Antara (Indonesia), Anatolia (Turkey), MENA (Egypt), Islamic International News Agency (TINA. Jeddah), PAl (Poland), Bernama (Malaysia), Kyodo (Japan) and Ager Press (Romania) .
. The Pakistan Press International, formerly known 88 the Pakistan Press Association (PPA), was established in 1956 88 ‘& private joint stock company and has been operating since. The West German news agency supplies its news to Pakistan through PPI, which also has news exchange arrangements with a number of news agencies including APN (Soviet Union), ANSA (Italy), CETEKA (Czechoslovakia), TarVU (Yugoslavia), NTI (Hungary), BTA (Bulgaria), UNI (India) and ‘ ESS (Bangladesh).
PPI has its own correspondent based in London. Equipped with a network of teleprinter facilities, PPI maintains ita bureaux at Karachi, which is also the agency’s headquarters, and in Lahore, Rawalpindi-Islemabad, Peshawar and Quetta. It also has correspondents and stringers all over the country …
‘The United Press of Pakistan (UPP) founded in 1949, does not have teleprinter “facilities, but distributes supplementary’ service to some newspapers. So does the International Press Service (IPS).
Organlsatlons Representing Press
There are organisations representing the interests of newspaper owners, editors, working journalists and employees of newspaper offices, such as proof readers, katibs (calligraph), Linotype and computer operators, etc., who are not professional journalists. There is the All-Pakistan Newspapers Society (APNS), headquartered in Karachi, which is the newspaper proprietor’s body. The editors are represented. in the Council of Pakistan Newspaper Editors (CPNE) and the working journalists in the Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists (PFU.J).
The AlI Pakistan News Employees’ Confederation (APNEC) represents employees, journalists as well as non-journalists in newspaper offices. There are local unions as well as splinter groups of unions in almost all the major newspaper centres in the country.
Major newspapers engage apprentice journalists and have provision for on-the-job training. In addition, the Karachi, Punjab, Sindh Universities, as well as the Oomal University at Dera Ismail Khan in NWFP, run regular two-year post-graduate courses.•in all branches of journalism, leading to the degree of M.A. in Journalism or Mass Communications.
Following a comprehensive survey of the state of education and training in journalism in the country at the instance of the University Grants Commission, all the universities in the country that have journalism classes have been asked to upgrade their two-year M.A. Journalism courses to a four-year course in Mass Communications leading to the degree of M.Sc. in Mass Communications.
News printing Technology
A feature of the development of the Press in Pakistan has been the introduction f advanced printing technology. What has been termed a technological breakthrough was scored by the Urdu daily Jang when it started computerized printing of its Lahore edition in Urdu calligraphic Statuesque script. Urdu newspapers, it may be added, traditionally are calligrapher laboriously and then printed on litho 9r photo-offset process.
Patented in the name of two Pakistani printers, M.H. Saiyed and Mirza Jamil Ahmed, the new process known as the ‘Noori Statuesque’ computerized typesetting, makes possible the setting of Urdu newspapers in the popular Nastaleeque script incorporated in machines produced by Messes Monotype Corporation of U.K. Likewise, phasing out battery of “hot metal” linotype machines, Dawn, Pakistan Times and Morning News have switched over to prototype setting (or composing) on computerized lino term machines. These machines are fitted with a computer memory bank, a punching keyboard, corrector, photo setter, etc.
The films of typeset produced by the machines are transferred to plates which are printed on high-speed photo-offset rotary presses, abandoning the old letterpress Springsteen.
Other English dailies on mM composing machines with an in-built mini-computer are The Muslim, The Frontier Post and The Nation.