Radio is a mode of listening news or programmes of entertainment but by this, we may only listen in a particular time and if desire to listen that programme again, we cannot have any facility to re-listen. This privilege is only in newspaper where not only we read the matter once but again and again even repeats the same in several times.
The main problem of the radio device is that once a programme had been broadcast then there will be no record of the same matter, becuase broadcasting is on air. In newspaper, one may find out record of several yonrs lying in reference libraries because newspaper published in printed form hence are recorded automatically. In present time the need of record is. everincreasing day-by-day as many problems have been solved by this and so much misapprehension diminished by producing record
Radio broadcasts its programmes on proper schedule whether giving news or an item of entertainment. The listeners have to sit near his radio set on the scheduled time and if not then there is no opportunity to listen that programme in any other time. But, one may enjoy this facility of time limitless in newspaper. Newspaper can be read at any time even according to the wish, whether on the table of breakfast, or while taking tea in a relax mood or any other time. In radio, the programme must have to listen, irrespective of the fact, one may want to listen or not.
The. area of influence of radio is very vast and widespread. Every kind of people, intellectual, illiterate and common man listens radio according to his taste or needs. So while broadcasting programme language should be easy, simple and clenr apprehending to every one. The use of quotations, idioms or difficult words may lessen the interest of an illiterate person Newspaper can djscuss complicated problems by inducing such devices because of its printed form as every one may find the material for reading according to his own taste.
Some time, pictures and maps are vital to understand the problem or situation as pictures has too much material in its sense and newspapers use this phenomena. for more and more coverage to a particular event. Radio has not any facility to enjoy this device but voice only or by using sentimental words for exploitation.
Apart from these problems and hazards, Radio has been playing its role positively and in both the developed and under developing countries. Radio is the most effective and popular media of mass-communication. Radio has an upper hand over the other media of communication that it provides immediate news, after occurrence of any event and majority of the people listen first information through radio
Radio is fulfilling the needs of illiterate persons by broadcasting the programmes of their needs and taste. By giving interesting. programmes, radio has increased the graph of popularityIn every walk of life. The availability of radio set is possible for an ordinary man also due to cheapest media. Once purchased for a rO,om,field, car, factory, etc. is enough
Role Of The Radio
Countries like Pakistan where literacy rate is not so favourable, majority of the people is illiterate. Radio has to be considered a popular and effective media because radio not only broadcasts news, information but also many programmes of entertainment. Apart from other programmes, radio also provides entertainment by its permanent programmes of light critical entertainment. Radio drama, which was very popular in past, agricultural programmes for our hardworking and patriotic farmers, by providing them useful information regarding new trends of agriculture and the commodity to meet the challenges of present day special programmes for industrial workers and armed forces. Music programmes are a major factor to increase the popularity of the radio. People in relax mood, desire to listen songs of their favourite singers, rather than a bare and disinterested programme but cultural invasion is its drawback. All India Radio has exploited this situation and now again
Pakistanis have adopted the Hindu traditions which are now part and parcel of their traditions. Eastern and Western Europe is also an example of cultural invasion.
popularity of the radio. People in relax mood, desire to listen songs of their favourite singers, rather than a bare and disinterested programme but cultural invasion is its drawback. All India Radio has exploited this situation and now again Pakistanis have adopted the Hindu traditions which are now part and parcel of their traditions. Eastern and Western Europe is also an example of cultural invasion.
In the war of 1965, Radio Pakistan played its role successfully and hence Pakistan defeated its enemy but in 1971 War, radio failed to transmit the message from one part of the country to the other. The problem of the East Pakistan and difficulties of West Pakistan were not being broadcast in its true sense, hence apart from other cause one of the major cause of separation of East Wing was the mismanaged system of information.
If radio is considered a medium of information, instruction, guidance and entertainment, education may also be included in this list. Countries like Pakistan and most of the third world countries are facing the problem of illiteracy. According to official resources literacy rate in Pakistan is 26 per cent. But in fact it is per cent, nevertheless, the need for educating more and more people is inevitable. It is an admitted reality that no nation, country can touch the climax of progress and prosperity without education and proper knowledge.
Countries where educational resources are not available, radio can be used as a best tool of education. In Pakistan Alama Iqbal Open University has enjoyed this facility and most of the people benefitted themselves through this medium. B.B.C, Voice of Germany and other renowned broadcasting companies of the world are far ahead in this field. No doubt, education promotes sense of rights and duties, responsibilities, consciousness and reliability among the people.
Our 70 per cent population lives in villages where radio is the only medium of information and entertainment for them as no other printed matter can reach there. Radio can also be used as useful medium for education as its message is always easily understood by every one on fulfilling the requirement of the illiterates. Radio by educating the persons enable them a responsible and gentle citizen.
In Pakistan, the transistor radio is without doubt the ost effective medium of communication because of its cheap availability, freedom from dependence on electric power for operation, vast coverage and deep penetration even in the farflung rural areas. It is not possible to determine the exact number of rural people who possess sets of transistor radio. The number of licences will be misleading, because it is estimated that more than three-fourth of the possessors do not acquire licences. The number of manufactured and imported sets also will be misleading, because the workers who return to rural areas from the Middle East and the European countries bring sets as part of their personal baggage. Moreover, in Pakistan, the assembly of transistor sets has become a cottage industry which does not come under the purview of the Factories Act. It is, therefore, assumed that 70 per cent of the families possess transistor sets and there are about nine million families in Pakistan’s rural areas. According to an estimate, 74.4 per cent of the rural population listens to radio, Out of these 31.1 per cent are regular listeners. Radio listening rises with the increase in education. Moreover, there is a correlation between radio listening and economic status. As the economic status rises, the quantity and quality of listening also increases
Twenty-six percent of the people in the countryside do not listen to the radio, because three-fifths of the non-listed have no transistor radio set, one-fifth have no interest and one-eighth no ti e. Other reasons for not listening to the radio are: T.V. viewing, cassette listening, household chores and, “no good programmes
In the countryside the transistor radio plays an important role in three fields; audio entertainment. information and education. A survey of rural broadcasts revealed that the highest percentage, 54 per cent, listened to entertainment programmes, next came the programmes combining information witty entertainment at 30.7 per cent. Current affairs enjoyed the third position and religious broadcasts were the last with 12.2 per cent
The high popularity of the audio entertainment programmes is understandable in view of the fact that Pakistan’s rural population is virtually starved of recreational facilities. There is no T.V., no cinema, no theatre, virtually no social funct.ions. The “melas” at shrines and cattle shows are held occasionally, often once a year. However, no music and light programmes in national and regional languages can reach the ears of the rural people, thanks to the invention of the transistor radio. For audio entertainment, the rural people also turn to the All-India Radio particularly its Urdu service and the “Aap Ki Farmaish” (Your Reuqests for Songs)programmes
As regards information, particularly the news, the bulletins of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) are as popular in the rural areas as in the cities. It is a matter of regret that in respect of news, the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation lost its credibility particularly during the wars of 1965 and 1971
The 1965 Indo-Pakistan war..was at best a “drawn match”, but it as presented by the PBC as a glorious victory. When the real situation came to light in the Tashkent Declaration, the people thought that President Ayub Khan had betrayed them. Thus the misrepresentation recoiled on the Head of the State. When the truth about war came to light. the people lost trust in the government-controlled information media.
Likewise in December, 1971, the information media were telling a different story to the people right at the time when the Pakistani commander in East Pakistan was being disgraced at the surrender ceremony in Dhaka. In view of the bitter experiences during the two wars as well as the indiffernet quality of Radio Pakistan’s news bulletins, the people often switch over to the BBC.
Enthusiastic response: The people in rural areas do respond enthusiastically whenever the mass media involve them in their programmes and scek their cooperation. In 1973, the Industrial Relations Department wanted to establish a rapport with the labour working in the cottage industries of rural areas. To begin with they tried to reach the rural workers through trade union leaders. No headway could be made. The urban trade union leaders failed to deliver the goods
Then an alternative method was adopted. The officials and workers of the Industrial Relations Department themselves went to some selected rural areas, addressed the workers’ meetings, tried to make them aware of their rights under the law and told them how to seek redress of their grievances. The response of the rural workers was tremendous, but it was limited to certain localities. And it was not possible for the department employees to visit the whole countryside of the Punjab. Moreover, it would have been too expensive
The department, therefore, approached Radio Pakistan. The programmes for the rural workers of cottage industries elicited -; tremendous response. The workers wrote letters, posed their problems, requested for advice and sought clarifications.
The Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation has undoubtedly played an admirable role in imparting to the rural people agricultural information and education. After the advent of the transistor radio the farm broadcasts were introduced in 1966 on an experimental basis from Lah re, Hyderabad and Peshawar stations. Encouraged by the success agricultural programmes were started from other stations also. Now with the exception of Karachi and Islamabad, all other stations broadcast agricultural programmes.
Programmes on agriculture are heard by 71.2 per cent agriculturists, 21.6 per cent of these being rpgular listeners. Regular listeners are the highest among the owner-farmers and tenants and the lowest in agricultural labour
Radio listening increases with education and economic status. The most liked items in agricultural programmes are those which contain advice on various aspects and problems of agriculture, livestock and poultry and information on fertilizers, cropping, seeds, animals and crop diseases and their cure, land preparation, vegetables and fruit, agricultural loans, machinery, manure and irrigation
Realising that transistor radio has increased the population and area coverage of broadcasting, the Government of Pakistan increased broadcasting stations from 6 to 16 (excluding the Azad Kashmir stations of MuzafTarabad and Trarkhel) and the duration of rural programmes was increased
Agricultural programme is, of course, the main feature of rural broadcasting. However, this programme also is in the process of losing its credibility. Whatever be the broadcasts, if promise by relevant official agencies is not fulfilled, not only no purpose would be served, but the credibility of radio and government would be undermined.
rhe inputs about which the agricultural broadcasters speak are so expensive that they are beyond the reach of even middle class farmers.
The agricultural extension services are of little help, their staff members make themselves scarce when they are most wanted.T’ertilisers most in demand are sold in the black-market.
This state of affairs shows that Pakistan’s luling elites have failed to take full advantage of the radio transistor. But, it should be remembered that the IUTalpeople will turn to the BBC and the AIR, once they are disillusioned with the concerned government agencies and the PBC. In that case the magic instrument, the transistor radio, may become an instrument for the spread of disenchantment in the rural areas of Pakistan.
The recording industry has grown up as an auxiliary to radio. Like radio, it had its beginnings a century ago, and developed into a mass communications system in the early. decades of this century. With occasional lapses, as for instance during the depression years, the recording industry has kept pace with the general move toward more media for more members of the audience.
Popular music has determined the financial success of the industry. Sophisticated production and marketing systems have been the industry’s hallmark. The recent marriage of music to video, and high quality reproduction of sound permitted by compact disc recordings, deserve special note as cultural and economic phenomena.
The motion picture or “screen” has had an impact upon society that is second to none. In addition to the popular commercial drama or “show” movies include news reels and travelogues, which are also seen in “show houses” or theaters, business firms, and a vast range of educational and promotional film used by schools, universities, business firms, Government agencies and other institutions