1. TV has immense impact. No other medium can compare with TV for its power to attract attention and interest, and in achieving these first two stages of the ADA formula it overcomes the first two problems facing any advertiser. How does he command attention, how does he claim interest? By the use of numerous techniques, the TV commercial is impactive. ‘The I’d Like to Buy the World a Coke Coca-Cola’ commercial was impactive even if the viewer WnB ternporartly out of the room. Only the cinema screen advertisement has similar (or greater) impact, but only if you go to the cinema
2. Excellent quality of production. The majority of TV commercials are of a high standard of production. The creation and production of commercials is the responsibility of skilled agency and professional film production teams. In fact, the film team which produce a commercial may consist of the same people who will next produce a full length cinema film of a TV series. There is nothing amateur about filmed and video-taped commercials, although the cheaper, simpler slides must look contrastingly less efficient. Some commercials may seem extravagent with richness and variety about some of the settings 80 that they make a refreshing change from the outworn studio sets and properties which are repeated in so many programmes. (When will they lose those prints of old aircraft and vintage cars, and that split-level interior set?)
3. Familiar, friendly voices. Very seldom do we have to sufTe~the bombastic voice of a typical salesman, but instead we have a familiar character, or voice which has a reassuring, even testimonial effect. The testimonial aspect is less important here than in the press: the audience is often quite happy to see a wellliked face and hear a welcome voice. After all, it is an entertainment medium and performers are not out of place in advertisements. The performer attracts atention in his own right, adding pleasure to the viewing of the commercial. The unknown, professional presenter is often extra ordinarily dull. This is a curious and significant advantage that commercial TV has over the American sponsored show where it is less credible for the performer to switch from the entertainment script to delivery of the commercial.
4. Retailers also watch TV. Both distributors are viewers since there is only programme. But the retailer may not consumers and one commercial necessarily see advertisements in different newspapers or magazines, or on outdoor or transportation sites. This bonus effect must help the manufacturer’s selling-In operation. The single medium does a double job
5. It is a comprehensive technique. With its combination of V1SI0n, colour, movement, sound, timing, repetition and presentation in the home it combines more advertising attributes than any other medium. Given a product which appeals to a large market, it also produces more results more quickly than any other medium. In particular, this has been proved by confectionery manufacturers whose products rapidly sell out of shops following TV advertising
Demerits of Television Advertising:
Five possible disadvantages of the television medium might be summarised as follows
1. It takes time to produce commercials. Television advertising is a very deliberate medium, requiring long-term planning, the gaining of approval (both client and Authority), and lacking the flexibility of press or radio advertising. Its use is limited to those advertisers who are not inhibited by this time ~factor, although video-tapes are very quickly produced. But the more urgent TV advertisements, being slides, look crude by comparison with those on which thought, time and care has been lavished, whether film or tape. However, TV commercials, once made, can be repeated.
2. It is a transient medium. Here commercial TV has a very genuine weakness, and efforts to eradicate it include making a commercial work overhard with insistent jingles and repeated sales messages, or by the too frequent repetition of the commercial itself. Unlike the press advertisement that can be tom out and kept, or returned to in the issue for further study, the commercial has flickered on and off in a few seconds. It may need support media to reiterate the message at another time or in a different place (TV Times, other publications, posters and point-of sale for example), whereas the mail-order or coupon inquiry press advertisement can do its job immediately .
3. Time gap to purchasing. There may be just time to slip out for a beer before closing time, but most products advertised on television suffer from the delay of a night’s sleep before a shop can be visited. Over the weekend, this weakness is intensified. Even the advertisement in the .evening or Friday newspaper can be physically retained: the TV advertisement has to be held in the mind
4. An immobile medium. The commercial required presence in the room, seated and watching. The housewife, motorist, teenager and others can listen to radio in many locations. Newspapers can be read in most places. Penetration of the home can be both advantage and limitation. Portable receivers help to overcome this fault.
5. Difficult to gain inquiries. The television companies have sought to overcome this through advertisement features in TV Times and by use of telephone numbers. Even so, not everyone has a telephone, the special effort has to be made to write down the-number which is nearly as tricky as writing down an address, and the convenience of.a coupon is not immediately present. So, once again, the medium tends to restrict itself typical retail purchases .
11.Children and Advertising: Children constitute large of any population. They are viewed as being especially vulnerable to influences. Hence their case warrants special consideration. How
advertising, primarily over the television medium, operates in the socialization of children has received considerable attention in recent years. The typical child spends more of his or her time in the company of the television set than reading or being entertained by any traditional medium.
Determining whether television advertising does, in fact, lead to the corruption of children by instilling values which are not acceptable in our society is a difficult assignment. Normal research methodology, complicated enough when ascertaining adult behavior, is inadequate in the case of children. Bias is a problem, and the subjects are not capable of the same degree of cooperation with the researcher. For these reasons, the question of the effect of television advertising, as contrasted with television viewing, has only recently been examined scientifically. Tentative findings are that children are not helpless victims of television advertising; they do tune out the messages under certain circumstances. Some learning nevertheless, does take place from viewing this form of marketing communication.· Thus, the likelihood is great that we shall see greater control, by government, the media, and advertisers, of television advertisements aimed at children and the time when they may be aired.
Advertising, sociology-economic influence: Neither scholars nor advertising and marketing professionals suggest that advertising is an institution above criticism. However, those who maintain that on balance, advertising’s sociology-economic influence is more beneficial than harmful often list contributions such as these to support such an evaluation.
1. Advertising is a buyer’s guide for both consumers and industrial purchasers, providing the former with news of new merchandise and special prices and the later with information about new materials, equipment, and technology
2. Advertising reduces distribution costs by simplifying the task of personal selling or by replacing it entirely.
3. Advertising encourages competition and also fosters product quality through clear brand identification and producer or distributor accountability
4. Advertising adds value to products by adding to time, place, and possession utility.
5. Advertising publicizes the material and cultural incentives of a democratic, free enterprise society, and so helps motivate increased productive effort by both management and labor.
6. Advertising enables both printed and broadcast communications to maintain independence from government, political parties, or other special interest groups
7. Advertising stimulates thought and action on national and local social problems
The Psychology of Advertising
In Motivation and Personality, psychologist Abraham Maslow defined a seven-stage hierarchy of needs. The needs progress from basic biological demands-such 8S hunger and thirst- -to a complex psychological stage of self-actualization-a need to find self-fulfillment and realize one’s potential. According to Mallow, needs low in the hierarchy must be at least partially satisfied before higher needs can become important sources of motivation. For ex_a…mple, a.missionary knows that there is little use in attempting to convert hungry peasants; religion settles better on a full tummy.
How does advertising relate to each stage on the hierarchy? While advertising seems capable of reinforcing basic awareness of-and stimulating us to satisfy-the Iower order needs such 8S hunger, thirst, and safety, it is less capable. of doing anything significant about our need for “belongingness,” love, self-esteem, and order and beauty in life. It is highly unlikely that those who have had what Maslow calls “peak experiences” or transient moments of self-actualization (nonstriving,. non-selfcentered states of perfection and goal attainment) have achieved thii fulfilment through advertising. Advertising does an excellent job of alluding to each level of need, reminding us that we share common desires. But in terms of triggering these responses in us, advertising is less successful at marketing self-actualization than it is at emptying grocery shelves of HOste88Twinkies.
Former advertising executive Otto Kleppner, whose book Advertising Procedure has become a standard reference since its first edition was published in 1925, tells advertising practitioners they can trigger a multitude of significant motivations in
consumers. Some are physiological (Iike hunger, thirst, and mating-the satisfaction of which is ‘essential to survival), while others are secondary or social (the desire to be accepted, to succeed). The motivations to which advertising can supposedly appeal include our tendencies to be acquisitive, to achieve, to be recognized, and to dominate. Kleppner does not maintain that advertising can actually fulfill all motives and needs, but he that to be successful advertising must emphasize with the goals, needs, desires, and problems of the people it is addressing. (This sounds like Kleppner had insights into psycho graphics long before the term came into popular usage.) Even though we do not always understand our own motives for responding to advertising appeals, we tend to consume and display products that tell the world how we would like to have it think of us.
Social psychologist Milton Rokeach says that when advertisers try to connect those brand changes (inconsequential beliefs) to other beliefs, they more often than not pander to our reliance upon authority figures to help us choose. As a consequence, athletes, movie stars, and even old politicians expect us to transfer our positive images of them onto themselves or the products. they tout. An appeal to change brands or try new products is based on playing with our negative self-concepts: . exploiting our primitive phobias and neurotic anxieties about self worth. Rokeach has taken strong issue with advertisers who picture humanity as being fundamentally irrational, guilt-ridden, and neurotic. The resulting advertising is exploitative, debasing, and insulting to human dignity, Rokeach maintains
Conclusions about advertising’s ability to influence people, to stimulate motivations and trigger responses, appear to rest on the model of humanity adhered to by whoever is drawing the conclusions. H one believes humanity is readily manipulated, subjected to whims and motivations over which it has little understanding and less control, all manner of mayhem may be laid at Madison Avenue’s collective doorsteps. On the other hand, if one holds to a more democratic view, picturing humanity B8
rational and capable of making important decisions while beiI untroubled over inconsequential choices, a more forgiving picture of the .advertising business emerges .