While most people watch TV News for their immediacy and visual impact, studies show that it has had very little impact on newspaper reading, In fact news.paper reading is a-habit deeply ingrained in the literate section of the population and .of Radio and TV people continue to read newspapers because of their thoroughness and detailed coverage. It ‘will not be wrong to say that while TV and Radio provide the taste and flavour, the Newspapers provide the meat which is essential for nourishment.
Basically Newspapers are seen as a source of information and TV 88 entertainment. Newspapers have enough space to cater to the special interests of ail the readers and provide detailed coverage of the news. TV on the other hand has a limited appeal and has to cater to the tastes of all the viewers in the limited time at its disposal. TV News by its nature has to be brief because it has to
give all the news in a brief time and has to leave out important details, frequently whole items altogether. Many a time it even happens that a more important item is left out in favour of one which is less important but has greater visual appeal. Thus TV news is basically a supplement for the Newspapers, watched mainly for its visual impact but not for thorough coverage or for interpretation or background .
TV cannot give ali the details of an item and neither should it try. TV is not a good vehicle for carrying great volumes of little facts such as facts and figures, large numbers and insignificant details. TV is a passing medium and once an item is read out it is gone forever. While on the other hand a reader reads a newspaper with full concentration and can refer to it again and again. The biggest advantage of TV news is its visual impact and direct appeal. The viewer can be directly taken to the battlefield and see the guns filing around him or people running for cover or bombs explode. He can see demonstrators throwing stones at policemen in the Israeli occupied areas. He can see the devastation caused by an earthquake in Nicarague and feel the agony of the people. And when a head of state declares war, every TV viewer feels he is addressing him directly and feels an appropriate emotional response. Newspapers are often read in circumstances in which Television cannot compete- while travelling, at the office, during breakfast. And they can be read any time during the day. It is a habit for most people to read the newspapers which they cannot do without, even if they have heard the news on the radio and TV
In a study in the United States, the participants were asked two questions: Which do you think gives the most complete news coverage, radio, newspapers or television? and which, do you think, gives the most interesting news coverage?
75% of the people said newspapers were most complete and 68% of the people said television was most interesting. Thus we can say that basically people look at newspapers as a source of information & TV as a source of entertainment
The Italian Marconi demonstrated a “Wireless’ system in 1895, transmitting messages through the air by electronic impulses. The practice of journalism was about to be revolutionized. Its potential was well demonstrated when in 1910 the murderer Dr. Ripen was arrested after the captain of the ship, SS Mont rose, in which he was trying to escape to America sent a wireless message to London from mid-Atlantic identifying him,
The newspapers were slow to recognize the way which radio would transform journalism by changing the pattern of communications around the world. Radio was initially sponsored . by the manufacturers of wireless and electrical equipment. In 1922 the British Government granted a two-year exclusive licence to the British broadcasting company, which opened the door to the whole of Europe. In the subcontinent, it was first established in Bombay in 1927, the radio station being inaugurated by the then viceroy of India, Lord Irvin. During the period from 1924 tr:,>1927, Government assisted financially in the establishment of partial radio clubs/stations at Bombay, Calcutta and Madras
In Lahore, a small radio station was set up in 1928, under the aegies of Y.M.C.II, whose range was not more than seven to eight miles. In the middle of 1934, it was closed on financial grounds. However a regular radio station was installed by the newly appointed department of broadcasting. In 1936, a small radio station was installed with the cooperation of a trading company, Marconi company. In 1939, a new station was installed. All the radio transmitters were of medium wave and were of regional importance.
After the partition, a radio station at Karachi was established, by buying some old transmitter and getting it repaired. In 1949, two powerful short wave transmitters where achieved which enabled a central news agency. It also enabled the radio stations to launch programmers in English, Urdu and Bengali languages, which could be heard in long distances.
At present, there are sixteen radio stations operating at Lahore, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta, Hyderabad, MuItan, Faisalabad, Khairpur, Bahawalpur, Dera Ismail Khan, Skardu, Gilgit, Khuzdar and Turbat and the radio station of Azad Kashmir at Muzzafarabad.
Radio Broadcasting is also an important media of mass communication both in developed and under-developed countries. In developed countries, broadcasting has adopted sophisticated trends due to its vast range of information and is considered to be a systematic means of entertainment, information, instruction. guidance and education throughout the world, Since the invention of radid, new trends have been inculcated as on inevitable
necessity, nevertheless, radio achieved such status of sophistication today. Radio has also shorten the far-flung distances of the world. Since when an event happened in any
corner of the world, it came. to us later after months, when someone came from these areas or any news agency received the information through its limited resources. Now with the setting up of Broadcasting House, every one can aware himself of latest information from all over the world through the blessing of radio. However, developing countries like Pakistan are facing problems of proper and standard broadcasting due to the lack of modern technology and latest equipments. In our radio station, our machinery had almost been out-dated but our abled Engineers are pushing it out through their hard-working and skill. Although, radio has some unparalleled attribution as a medium of mass communication but. on the other hand, there are also some
problems to the listeners .